Book: Bernard, Russell “Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology” AltaMira Press, 1988
Unobtrusive Observation, Direct, Reactive Observation, Interviewing, Taking and Managing Fieldnotes.

Journal Article: Boyer, Horace Clarence “Contemporary Gospel Music.” The Black Perspective in Music, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 5-58
Boyer gives a fairly comprehensive history, development and analysis of contemporary gospel music.

Journal Article: Burnim, Mellonee “Gospel Music Research” Black Music Research Journal, Vol. 1 (1980), pp. 63-70

This article describes the various scholarly researches into the history of gospel music and its significance to the African-American aesthetic.

Journal Article: Eyerman, Ron “The Past in the Present: Culture and the Transmission of Memory” Acta Sociologica, Vol. 47 No. 2 (Jun., 2004) pp. 159-169

Interesting idea of cultural trauma and how it might be passed down from generation to generation in the form of shared cultural memory.

Journal Article: Gordon, Edmund T. and Anderson, Mark “The African Diaspora: Toward an Ethnography of Diasporic Identification” The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 112, No. 445 (Summer, 1999), pp. 282-296
Gives a definition and implications of the African Diaspora.

Journal Article: McCarthy, Thomas “Coming to Terms with Our Past, Part II: On the Morality and Politics of Reparations for Slavery” Political Theory, Vol. 32 No.6 (Dec., 2004), pp. 750-772


Journal Article: Nelson, Timothy J. “Sacrifice of Praise: Emotion and Collective participation in an African-American Worship Service”. Sociology of Religion, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Winter, 1996), pp. 379-396

In this article Nelson analyzes the role of “feeling rules” in the ritual of the African-American church service. Religious expression and participation are extremely important in the worship service of this community and he describes the expectations for acceptable behavior within the ritual. Emotions or “feeling rules” have very well defined forms of expression and are categorized into groups of worship, thankfulness, love, joy and hope. Nelson then explains the difference of norms between an “emotional” and “non-emotional” worship service and the set of rules that govern the congregational response. He gives a close examination of response behavior and its role within the service.

Journal Article: Phillips, Romeo Eldridge “Perceptions of Gospel Music” The Black Perspective in Music, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Autumn, 1982), pp. 167-178
Phillips presents positions of African-American music scholars from traditionally African-American colleges and universities about the place of “gospel” music in both religious service as well as collegiate performance. In this article Phillips presents transcripts of interviews he conducted with two groups of African-American scholars as they respond to his questions about the role of gospel music in the Black community. He discusses “gospel” as being a pop/jazz inspired music that began in secular settings and has now been brought into acceptance in religious settings vs. traditional “spirituals” which are looked upon as the deeper more “classical” inspired music that was born out of slavery and oppression.

Journal Article: Pitts, Walter “Like a Tree Planted by the Water: The Musical Cycle in the African-American Baptist Ritual”. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 104, No. 413 (Summer, 1991), pp. 318-340
Pitts attempts to relate the Possession trance of West African tribes to the African-American Baptists experience of being “filled” with the Holy Ghost.
Newspaper: Pratt, Beth “African-American churches see ‘tremendous reawakening’.” Lubbock Avalanche Journal, Saturday, February 12, 2000.
This article briefly relates the growing African-American church community here in Lubbock, TX.

Journal Article: Southern, Eileen “Hymnals of the Black Church”. The Black Perspective in Music, Vol. 17, No ½ (1989), pp.153-170
A history and illustration of the development of the Black Hymnal beginning with Richard Allen of the Bethel AME Church of Philadelphia through Charles H. Mason of the Church of God in Christ.

Journal Article: Weaver, Michael S. “The Theatricality of the Black Church”. Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 25, No. 1, The Black Church and the Black Theatre (Spring, 1991), pp. 53-61

Weaver in this article discusses the African-American church as both the inspiration for African-American playwrights and theater productions as
well as the form of the church service itself as a ritual performance with the preacher as the main performer and the congregation as an active
participant in the moment-by-moment drama. He describes five main elements involved in the vast majority of church services as preaching
singing, praying, testifying and offering.


Newspaper: Westbrook, Ray “Spiritual roots: African-Americans put their own stamp on music.” Lubbock Avalanche Journal, Tuesday, February 1, 2000.
This article gives a brief description of some local groups performing spirituals during a Black History Month Celebration. The language and symbolism of traditional spirituals is briefly discussed.